This is a ‘Minion’, a type of cannon which was in common usage on 16th Century ships. It fires a 4lb shot, and is accurate at a range of around 100m. Part of the Golden Hinde’s mission was to capture the goods aboard Spanish ships in the Pacific, and its guns were primarily used to disable its targets or intimidate them into surrendering.
Much of naval combat was still hand to hand, with crews boarding their enemies using ropes or small boats.
It’s easy to imagine how difficult it would have to load and fire a cannon on this deck, especially when the ship was pitching and rolling on choppy seas. English gun crews would have been highly drilled, and were renowned for their skill throughout Europe.